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Types of Skin Pigmentation & Skin Discoloration Disorders

Types of Skin Pigmentation & Skin Discoloration Disorders

There are several types of pigmentation. Understanding the types and causes of skin discolouration will help us find the best way to prevent and tackle these signs, when they appear.


Hypo-pigmentation occurs when the skin becomes lighter or whiter than normal. This is due to a reduction in melanin production.


Vitiligo is a type of hypo-pigmentation, where smooth white patches appear on the skin because pigment-producing cells are damaged. While there is no cure for Vitiligo, there are several treatments, including cosmetic cover-up.  


This is a rare inherited disorder caused by the absence of melanin altogether, resulting in a complete lack of pigmentation in skin, hair and eyes. Unfortunately there is no cure for Albinism.


Hyperpigmentation occurs when patches of skin become darker than the surrounding skin, due to an increase in melanin deposits in the dermis or epidermis. Read more about Hyper pigmentation treatment and its causes


Melasma occurs when there is an uneven production of pigmentation in the skin, appearing as brown or black patches. While sun exposure is the primary cause for this, certain medical and health issues are also known triggers.


Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation is a discolouration of the skin in response to inflammation. PIH appear as pink, red, brown or black spots, depending on skin tone. It is usually triggered by acne, a wound, rash or pimple that causes inflammation of the skin. Know more about Post Inflamatory Hyperpigmentation treatment and how to treat it at Kaya.

Peri-orbital Melanosis:

This kind of skin discolouration is commonly known as dark circles. It is usually hereditary but can be caused by stress or strain on the eyes. Read more about causes and treatment for dark circles


Freckles are visible on lighter complexions and are usually genetic, though, sun damage can cause an excessive outbreak of freckles.


This is caused due to sun exposure, and presents itself as a patchy pigmentation on the face, neck, back and arms.


Sunburn is a type of reddish skin discolouration, usually common to fairer skin tones, resulting from too much sun exposure.

Age spots

Age spots, liver spots or lentigines are caused by skin damage from sun exposure. These spots appear on the face, neck, décolleté and arms. Protection from an early age is the only way to avoid developing these age spots.

In our next post, we will explore in greater depth the various causes of skin pigmentation, and how we can work to prevent it.

Know About Melasma Treatment and other treatment for pigmentation available at Kaya

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